United States Volunteers
3d Battalion
Antietam 140th Anniversary Reenactment
The Eighth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers
from Revised United States Army Regulations

375. Camp and garrison guards will be relieved every twenty-four hours. The guards at outposts will ordinarily be relieved in the same manner, but this must depend on their distances from camp, or other circumstances, which may sometimes require their continuing on duty several days. In such cases, they must be previously warned to provide themselves accordingly.
376. At the first call for guard-mounting, the men warned for duty turn out on their company parades for inspection by the First Sergeants; and at the second call, repair to the regimental or garrison parade, conducted by the First Sergeants. Each detachment, as it arrives, will, under the direction of the Adjutant, take post on the left of the one that preceded it, in open order, arms shouldered, and bayonets fixed; the supernumeraries five paces in the rear of the men of their respective companies; the First Sergeants in rear of them. The Sergeant-Major will dress the ranks, count the files, verify the details, and when the guard is formed, report to the Adjutant, and take post two paces on the left of the front rank.
377. The Adjutant then commands Front, when the officer of the guard takes post twelve paces in front of the centre, the Sergeants in one rank, four paces in the rear of the officers; and the Corporals in one rank, four paces in the rear of the Sergeants-all facing to the front. The Adjutant then assigns their places in the guard.
378. The Adjutant will then command, 1. Officer and non-commissioned officers. 2. ABOUT-FACE. 3. Inspect your guards-MARCH! The non-commissioned officers then take their posts. The commander of the guard then commands, 1. Order-ARMS. 2. Inspection-ARMS. and inspects his guard. When there is no commissioned officer on the guard, the Adjutant will inspect it. Dnring inspection the band will play.
379. The inspection ended, the officer of the guard takes post as though the guard were a company of a battalion, in open order, under review; at the same time, also, the officers of the day will take post in front of the centre of the guard; the old officer of the day three paces on the right of the new officer of the day, one pace retired.
380. The Adjutant will now command, 1. Parade-REST! 2. Troop -Beat off! when the music, beginning on the right, will beat down the line in front of the officer of the guard to the left, and back to its place on the right, where it will cease to play.
381. The Adjutant then commands, 1. Attention! 2. Shoulder-ARMS! 3. Close order-MARCH! At the word "close order," the officer will face about; at "march," resume his post in line. The Adjutant then commands, Present-ARMS! At which he will face to the new officer of the day, salute, and report, "Sir, the guard is formed." The new officer of the day, after acknlowledging the salute, will direct the Adjutant to march the guard in review, or by flank to its post. But if the Adjutant be senior to the officer of the day, he will report without saluting with the sword then or when marching the guard in review.
382. In review, the guard march past the officer of the day, according to the order of review, conducted by the Adjutant, marching on the left of the first division; the Sergeant-Major on the left of the last division.
383. When the column has passed the officer of the day, the officer of the guard marches it to its post, the Adjutant and Sergeant-Major retiring. The music, which has wheeled out of the column, and taken post opposite the officer of the day, will cease, and the old officer of the day salute, and give the old or standing orders to the new officer of the day. The supernumeraries, at the same time, will be marched by the First Sergeants to their respective company parades, and dismissed.
384. In bad weather, or at night, or after fatiguing marches, the ceremony of turning off may be dispensed with, but not the inspection.
385. Grand guards, and other brigade guards, are organized and mounted on the brigade parade by the staff officer of the parade, under the direction of the field officer of the day of the brigade, according to the principles here prescribed for the police guard of a regiment. The detail of each regiment is assembled on the regimental parade, verified by the Adjutant, and marched to the brigade parade by the senior officer of the detail. After inspection and review, the officer of the day directs the several guards to their respective posts.
386. The officer of the old guard, having his guard paraded, on the approach of the new guard commands, Present-ARMS!
387. The new guard will marcA, in quick time, past the old guard, at shouldered arms, officers saluting, and take post four paces on its right, where, being aligned with it, its commander will order, Present-ARMS! The two officers will then approach each other, and salute. They will then return to their respective guards, and command, 1. Shoulder-ARMS! 2. Order-ARMS!
388. The officer of the new guard will now direct the detail for the advanced guard to be formed and marched to its post, the list of the guard made and divided into three reliefs, experienced soldiers placed over the arms of the guard and at the remote and responsible posts, and the young soldiers in posts near the guard for instruction in their duties, and will himself proceed to take possession of the guard-house or guardtent, and the articles and prisoners in charge of the guard.
389. During the time of relieving the sentinels and of calling in the small posts, the old commander will give to the new all the information and instructions relating to his post.
390. The first relief having been designated and ordered two paces to the front, the Corporal of the new guard will take charge of it, and go to relieve the sentinels, accompanied by the Corporal of the old guard, who will take command of the old sentinels, when the whole are relieved.
391. If the sentinels are numerous, the Sergeants are to be employed, as well as the Corporals, in relieving them.
392. The relief, with arms at a support, in two ranks, will march by a flank, conducted by the Corporal on the side of the leading front-rank man; and the men will be numbered alternately in the front and rear rank, the man on the right of the front rank being No. 1. Should an officer approach, the Corporal will command carry arms, and resume the support arms when the officer is passed.
393. The sentinels at the guard-house or guard-tent will be the first relieved and left behind: the others are relieved in succession.
394. When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he will halt and face to it, with his arms at a shoul when the relief will halt and carry arms. The Corporal will then add, ("No. 1" or "No 2," or "No. 3," according to the number of the post, Arms-PORT! The two sentinels will, with arms at port, then approach each other, when the old sentinel, under the correction of the Corporal, will whisper tlLe instructions to the new sentinel. This done, the two sentinels will shoulder arms, and the old sentinel will pass, in quick time, to his place in rear of the relief. The Corporal will then command, 1. Support-ARMS! 2. forward. 3. MARCH! and the relief proceeds in the same manner until the whole are relieved.
395. The detachments and sentinels from the old guard having come in, it will be marched, at shouldered arms, along the front of the new guard, in quick time, the new guard standing at presented arms; officers saluting, and the music of both guards beating, except at the outposts.
396. On arriving at the regimental or garrison parade, the commander of the old guard will send the detachments composing it, under charge of the non-commissioned officers, to their respective regiments. Before the men are dismissed, their pieces will be drawn or discharged at a target. On rejoining their companions, the chiefs of squads will examine the arms, etc of their men, and cause the whole to be put away in good order.
397. When the old guard has marched off fifty paces, the officer of the new guard will order his men to stack their arms, or place them in the arm-racks.
398. The commander of the guard will then make himself acquainted with all the instructions for his post, visit the sentinels, and question them and the non-commissioned officers relative to the instructions they may have received from other persons of the old guard.
Duties of Sentinels
Kautz Customs of Service p.78. General Orders - I am required to take charge of this post and all public property in view; to salute all officers passing, according to their rank; to give the alarm in case of fire, or the approach of the enemy, or any disturbance whatsoever; to report all violations of the Articles of War, Regulations of the Army, or camp or garrison orders; at night, to challenge all persons approaching my post, and to allow no one to pass without the countersign until they are examined by an officer or non-commissioned officer of the guard.
399. Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless the state of the weather, or other causes, should make it necessary or proper that it be done at shorter or longer intervals.
400. Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the commander of the guard or of its post. The Corporal reports to him, and presents the old relief on its return.
401. The countersign, or watchword, is given to such persons as are entitled to pass during the night, and to officers, non-commissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard. Interior guards receive the countersign only when ordered by the commander of the troops.
402 The parole is imparted to such officers only as have a right to visit the guards, and to make the grand rounds; and to officers conmmanding guards.
403. As soon as the new guard has been marched off, the officer of the day will repair to the office of the commanding officer and report for orders.
404. The officer of the day must see that the officer of the guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before retreat.
405. The officer of the day visits the guards during the day at such times as he may deem necessary, and makes his rounds at night at least once after 12 o'clock.
406. Upon being relieved, the officer of the day will make such remarks in the report of the officer of the guard as circumstances require, and present the same at head-quarters.
407. Commanders of guards leaving their posts to visit their sentinels, or on other duty, are to mention their intention, and the probable time of their absence, to the next in command.
408. The officers are to remain constantly at their guards, except while visiting their sentinels, or necessarily engaged elsewhere on their proper duty.
409. Neither officers nor soldiers are to take off their clothing or accoutrements while they are on guard.
410. The officer of the guard must see that the countersign is duly communicated to the sentinels a little before twilight.
411. When a fire breaks out, or any alarm is raised in a garrison, all guards are to be immediately under arms.
412. Inexperienced officers are put on guard as supernumeraries, for the purpose of instruction.
413. Sentinels will not take orders or allow themselves to be relieved, except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of their guard or party, the officer of the day, or the commanding officer; in which case the orders will be immediately notified to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.
414. Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulations they are instructed to enforce.
415. Sentinels must keep themselves on the alert, observing every thing that takes place within sight and hearing of their post. They will carry their arms habitually at support, or on either shoulder, but will never quit them. In wet weather, if there be no sentry-box, they will secure arms.
416. No sentinel shall quit his post or hold conversation not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.
417. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to observe respect toward sentinels.
418. In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out the guard; and if a fire take place, he must cry -" Fire!" adding the number of his post. If in either case the danger be great, he must discharge his firelock before calling out.
419. It is the duty of a sentinel to repeat all calls made from posts more distant from the main body of the guard than his own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard by the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.
420. Sentinels will present arms to general and field officers, to the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of the post. To all other officers they will carry arms.
421. When a sentinel in his sentry-box sees an officer approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the musket, as high as the right shoulder.
422. The sentinel at any post of the guard, when he sees any body of troops, or an officer entitled to compliment, approach, must call-" Turn out the guard!" and announce who approaches.
423. Guards do not turn out as a matter of compliment after sunset; but sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach, pay them proper attention, by facing to the proper front, and standing steady at shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is so far advanced that the sentinels begin challenging.
424. After retreat (or the hour appointed by the commanding officer), until broad daylight, a sentinel challenges every person who approaches him, taking, at the same time, the position of arms port. He will suffer no person to come nearer than within reach of his bayonet, until the person has given the countersign.
425. A sentinel, in challenging, will call out -" Who comes there?" If answered-" Friend, with the countersign," and he be instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will reply-"Advance, friend, with the countersign!" If answered-"Friends!" he will reply-"Halt, friends! Advance one with the countersign!" If answered-" Relief," " Patrol," or " Grand rounds," he will reply-" Halt! Advance, Sergeant (or Corporal), with the countersign!" and satisfy himself that the party is what it represents itself to be. If he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, if the wrong countersign be given, or if the persons have not the countersign, he will cause them to stand, and call-" Corporal of the guard!"
426. In the daytime, when the sentinel before the guard sees the officer of the day approach, he will call-" Turn out the guard! officer of the day." The guard will be paraded, and salute with presented arms.
427. When any person approaches a post of the guard at night, the sentinel before the post, after challenging, causes him to halt until examined by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it be the officer of the day, or any other officer entitled to inspect the guard and to make the rounds, the non-commissioned officer will call-" Turn out the guard!" when the guard will be paraded at shouldered arms, and the officer of the guard, if he thinks necessary, may demand the countersign and parole.
428. The officer of the day, wishing to make the rounds, will take an escort of a non-commlissioned officer and two men. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the Sergeant will answer-" Grand rounds!" and the sentinel will reply-" -Halt, grand rounds! Advance, Sergeant, with the countersign!" Upon which the Sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry-" Advance, rounds!" and stand at a shoulder till they have passed.
429. When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is answered -" Grand rounds," he will reply-" Halt, grand rounds! Turn out the guard; grand rounds!" Upon which the guard will be drawn up at shouldered arms. The officer commanding the guard will then order a Sergeant and two men to advance; when within ten paces, the Sergeant challenges. The Sergeant of the grand rounds answers-" Grand rounds!" The Sergeant of the guard replies-" Advance, Sergeant, with the countersign!" The Sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign, and returns to his round. The Sergeant of the guard calls to his officer-" The countersign is right!" on which the officer of the guard calls-"Advance, rounds!" The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard standing at shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and gives him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort, and, taking a new one, proceeds in the same manner to other guards.
430. All material instructions given to a sentinel on post by persons entitled to make grand rounds, ought to be promptly notified to the commander of the guard.
431. Any General officer, or the commander of a post or garrison, may visit the guards of his command, and go the grand rounds, and be received in the same manner as prescribed for the officer of the day.

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